Working capital is really important for businesses. However, many business owners don’t fully understand its importance or how to calculate it.

In simple terms, it is the difference between a company’s current assets and its current liabilities. It shows how much money a company needs for its daily tasks and is crucial for understanding its financial health.

To enhance its working capital, a business can also decrease its short-term obligations. The company can avoid taking on unnecessary or expensive debt and try to get the best credit terms.

The business should be cautious about its expenditures, both externally with vendors and internally with its available staff. When a business is very busy, the accounts for the things the business owns and owes money for are likely to change.

Consequently, by the time financial data is compiled, it is likely that it has already been altered.

In this article, we will discuss the significance of working capital and how you can calculate it. This will help you improve your understanding and management of your business’s finances.

Why Is Working Capital Important?


Working capital is the amount of money a company has available to pay off its immediate debts and expenses. A company that has enough money is better prepared to deal with unexpected costs or a drop in income.

Operational Efficiency

Working capital is also an indicator of a company’s operational efficiency. A business with ample funds can pay its bills and pursue expansion without borrowing money.

Growth Potential

Having a healthy amount of working capital also allows a company to take advantage of growth opportunities. Having this, a company can invest in new equipment, hire more employees, or expand into new markets.

Financial Stability

Working capital is a key factor in a company’s financial stability. If a company doesn’t have enough money to run its daily tasks, it may struggle to pay its bills. This can harm its credit and potentially lead to bankruptcy.

Working Capital Calculator

Working capital is calculated by subtracting a company’s current liabilities from its current assets. Current assets are things that a company has that can be easily turned into cash within a year. Current liabilities are money that a company needs to pay back within a year.

The formula is:

Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Current Assets

Current assets are things that a company owns that can be turned into cash within a year. This can include cash, money owed by customers, items that can be sold, and other assets that can be easily converted to cash.

It is important to note that not all assets are considered current assets. For example, long-term investments or fixed assets such as buildings or equipment are not included in current assets.

Current Liabilities

Current liabilities include accounts payable, short-term loans, and any other debts that are due within a year. Similar to current assets, not all liabilities are considered current liabilities. Long-term debts, such as mortgages or bonds, are not included in current liabilities.

Working Capital Adjustment

When a company is being acquired or merged with another company, a working capital adjustment may be necessary.

We change this to ensure that we pay the right amount of money for the company we are buying. This amount includes all the necessary expenses for running the company. The adjustment is made by comparing the company’s current funds with the initially agreed amount in the agreement.

If you have more money than you need for daily expenses, the price of things you want to buy can go up. Conversely, if the funds are insufficient, the cost of purchasing an item may decrease.

Working Capital Optimization

Working capital optimization is all about managing a company’s current money and debts so that it can fulfill its financial responsibilities and invest in its growth.

Here are some tips for optimization:

Monitor Your Cash Flow

Cash flow is one crucial aspect. By monitoring your income and expenses, you can determine if you are facing any situations where you may not have sufficient funds.

By taking action earlier, you can prevent it from turning into a major problem.

Negotiate Payment Terms

Business negotiationby Dai KE (

Negotiating longer payment terms with your suppliers can help improve your working capital. By extending your payment terms, you can hold onto your cash longer, giving you more time to generate revenue and cover your expenses.

Manage Your Inventory

Excess inventory ties up your working capital and can lead to cash flow problems. To have more money for other things, keep track of your inventory and buy only what you need.

Improve Your Accounts Receivable Process

A slow or inefficient accounts receivable process can lead to a decrease in working capital. By making it easier for customers to pay you, you can get more money coming in and have more money available for your business.

Real-World Example of Working Capital Optimization

A company that specializes in manufacturing and selling custom furniture was struggling with cash flow issues due to a high amount of inventory and slow-paying customers. By implementing these optimization strategies, they were able to improve their working capital and financial stability.

First, they negotiated longer payment terms with their suppliers, allowing them to hold onto their cash for longer. They also implemented a more efficient accounts receivable process, which resulted in faster payments from customers. Additionally, they analyzed their inventory levels and reduced excess inventory, freeing up funds for other expenses.

Because of these strategies, the company saved more money and used it to buy new equipment and make more products. This helped them earn more money and grow bigger.

Working Capital Turnover Ratio

The turnover ratio is a financial metric that indicates the efficiency of a company in utilizing its funds for generating sales. It is calculated by dividing net sales by average working capital.

Here is a step-by-step guide on how to calculate the turnover ratio:

Step 1: Determine the net sales of the company. Net sales can be found on the income statement or by subtracting sales returns, allowances, and discounts from gross sales.

Step 2: Calculate the average WC(working capital). WC is the difference between current assets (such as cash, accounts receivable, and inventory) and current liabilities (such as accounts payable and short-term debt). To find the average, add the WC at the beginning of the period to the WC at the end of the period and divide by 2.

Step 3: Divide the net sales by the average WC. The resulting ratio will indicate how many times the WC is being turned over in a given period.

For example, if a company has net sales of $1,000,000 and an average of $200,000, the WC turnover ratio would be 5 ($1,000,000 / $200,000).

The turnover ratio is a useful tool for analyzing a company’s efficiency in managing its working capital. A higher ratio means the company makes more sales for each dollar it invests in working capital. A lower ratio means the company has too much working capital or isn’t using it well.


Working capital is a crucial aspect of a company’s financial health and should not be overlooked.

Knowing why working capital is important and how to calculate it can help you effectively manage your business’s finances and make smart decisions to improve your working capital.

Remember to regularly monitor your working capital and implement strategies for optimization to ensure your company’s financial stability and growth potential.

Having sufficient working capital for your business simplifies problem-solving and maximizes opportunities for success.